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    碳素工具钢钢锉感应淬火工艺

    2018-10-25 08:51:17 无锡盛发地坪科技有限公司 阅读

    我国从20世纪70年代初期开始摸索用感应加热的方法对钢锉进行淬火处理,经过数十年的工艺试验和生产,现已掌握了100~350mm尖扁锉、方锉、三角锉的全套生产工艺,如图3-6所示。事实证明,感应加热完全适合钢锉淬火,效果很好,符合节能减排战略。
    Since the early 1970s, induction heating has been used to quench steel files in our country. After decades of technological test and production, we have mastered the whole production process of 100-350mm sharp flat files, square files and triangular files, as shown in Figure 3-6. It has been proved that induction heating is completely suitable for quenching steel files, and the effect is very good, which is consistent with the strategy of energy saving and emission reduction.
    1-进水2-喷水圈3-感应圈4-橡胶滚筒5-钢锉运动方向6-钢锉
    1- inlet 2- spray ring 3- induction ring 4- rubber roller 5- steel file movement direction 6- steel file
    1)感应加热频率的选择。众所周知,感应加热是利用交流电感应的原理和集肤效应来达到表面加热目的,其电流热透入深度△=500/√f(f为电流频率),即透入深度与电流频率的平方根成反比,所以改变电流频率就能得到不同深度的加热层。在选用较高的电流频率时,由于电流热透入深度浅,而要求淬透的深度深,这样易造成齿根加热温度合适而齿尖早已过热,或齿尖加热温度合适则齿根加热不够的现象。在选用较低的电流频率时,因电流热透入深度深,这样易出现加热深度太深,加热时间长,所需加热功率大等情况,所以在保证淬透层深度的前提下,要得到齿尖、齿根均匀一致的加热温度,选择恰当的电流频率是非常关键的。
    1) the choice of induction heating frequency. It is well known that induction heating uses the principle of alternating current induction and skin effect to achieve the purpose of surface heating. Its current penetration depth (?) = 500 / F (f is the current frequency), that is, the penetration depth is inversely proportional to the square root of the current frequency, so changing the current frequency can get different depth of the heating layer. When choosing higher current frequency, because of the shallow penetration depth of electric current and the deep quenching depth, it is easy to cause the phenomenon that the root heating temperature is appropriate and the tip has already been overheated, or the root heating is not enough when the tip heating temperature is appropriate. When choosing the lower current frequency, because of the deep penetration depth of the current, it is easy to appear that the heating depth is too deep, the heating time is long, and the heating power is large. Therefore, it is very important to choose the appropriate current frequency to get the uniform heating temperature of the tooth tip and root under the premise of ensuring the depth of the hardened layer.
    以典型的300mm粗纹尖扁锉为例,齿尖凸起部位大致为0.50~0.55mm,质量要求齿根下0. 30mm必须淬透,即钢锉表面的整个淬硬层深度δ要在0.80~0. 85mm以上,且要求齿尖不能出现粗针马氏体。
    Taking a typical 300 mm thick-grained flat file as an example, the protruding part of the tooth tip is approximately 0.50-0.55 mm. The quality requires that 0.30 mm below the tooth root must be hardened, that is, the whole hardening depth of the steel file surface should be above 0.80-0.85 mm, and the tooth tip should not appear thick-needle martensite.
    生产实践证明:δ≤△热,且在δ=1/2△热时,热效率最高。这样,要求0. 80~0.85mm淬硬层时△热应为28=1.6~1.7mm,故电流频率的理论值为
    The production practice has proved that the thermal efficiency of delta is smaller than that of delta, and the thermal efficiency is the highest when the delta =1/2 delta is hot. In this way, when the 0. 80~0.85mm hardening layer is required, the delta heat should be 28=1.6~1.7mm, so the theoretical value of the current frequency is
    f=( 500/1. 7)2~( 500/1.6)2Hz= 86.5~97. 7kHz
    F= (500/1. 7) ~ (500/1.6) x Hz= 86.5 ~ 97. 7kHz
    然而,以前有人使用的电流频率为250kHz,结果齿尖出现粗针马氏体,淬火质量不易控制,后来人们对设备进行了改造,使电流频率降至95kHz(在97.7~86. 5kHz范围内),终于使粗针状马氏体得到了控制,质量完全符合技术要求。
    However, the current frequency used before was 250kHz. As a result, the thick needle martensite appeared on the tooth tip, and the quenching quality was difficult to control. Later, the equipment was modified to reduce the current frequency to 95 kHz (in the range of 97.7-86.5 kHz), and finally the thick needle martensite was controlled, and the quality fully met the technical requirements.
    2)确保淬火质量的几个条件。为了保证钢锉在感应加热中得到稳定、高质量的产品,应具备以下4个条件。
    2) several conditions to ensure quenching quality. In order to ensure stable and high-quality products in the induction heating of steel files, the following 4 conditions should be met.
    ①选用功率合适的设备。实践经验是:100~250mm尖扁锉,选用60kW、250kHz的高频感应加热设备,300mm以上的尖扁锉,选用100kW,95kHz或68kHz的超音频感应加热设备。
    Select suitable power equipment. Practical experience is: 100 ~ 250mm sharp flat file, choose 60 kW, 250 kHz high frequency induction heating equipment, 300 mm or more sharp flat file, choose 100 kW, 95 kHz or 68 kHz ultrasonic induction heating equipment.
    ②制订合理的热处理工艺。以300mm粗纹扁锉为例,工艺参数为屏压12~13kV,屏流8~9A,栅流1.2~1.5A,送料时间12s,冷却水压17. 64MPa,电流频率95kHz。
    Second, formulate reasonable heat treatment process. Taking 300 mm thick-grained flat file as an example, the technological parameters are: screen voltage 12-13 kV, screen current 8-9 A, gate current 1.2-1.5 A, feeding time 12 s, cooling water pressure 17.64 MPa, current frequency 95 kHz.
    ③设计合适的感应圈。250mm以下的扁锉,由于电流频率较高,有明显的尖角效应现象,设计感应圈为图3-7所示的形状。而300mm以上的大规格扁锉,由于采用的是具有加热温度均匀,并能使钢锉得到轮廓淬火的超音频感应加热设备,设计成如图3-8所示的感应圈较合适。
    Design suitable induction coil. Because of the high current frequency and sharp angle effect of the flat file below 250mm, the inductor coil is designed as shown in Figure 3-7. For large flat files of 300 mm or more, the induction coils shown in Fig. 3-8 are more suitable because they are equipped with ultrasonic induction heating equipment with uniform heating temperature and can make the steel files quenched.
    250mm以下扃锉感应圈
    250mm below the filing ring.
    图3-7 250mm以下扃锉感应圈
    Fig. 3-7 induction coil below 250mm
    300mm扁铿感应圈
    300mm flat Keng induction coil
    图3-8 300mm扁铿感应圈
    Fig. 3-8 300mm induction ring
    ④喷水圈应具有强的喷射冷却能力。喷水圈上的喷射孔应分布均匀,孔径角度合适,能承受19. 60MPa以上的水压。另外,还要求焊接处不许漏水,喷射孔内外无毛刺等。
    4. The sprinkler should have strong jet cooling capability. The spray holes on the sprinkler should be evenly distributed, and the aperture angle is suitable, which can withstand water pressure of more than 19. 60MPa. In addition, it is also requested that no leakage should be allowed in the welds and no burrs inside and outside the spray holes.
    3)使用感应加热的几点体会。钢锉采用感应加热具有以下优点:
    3) experience of induction heating. Induction heating for steel files has the following advantages:
    ①变形小。由于钢锉不是整体加热,且淬火时两边共有16只橡胶滚筒导向,从而保证了钢锉纵向变形小。即使产生了微小变形的钢锉,由于感应加热是表面强化,外硬内软,用木锤校直也极为方便。
    Small deformation. Because the steel file is not heated as a whole, and there are 16 rubber drums on both sides of the steel file during quenching, which ensures that the longitudinal deformation of the steel file is small. Even if a steel file with small deformation is produced, it is very convenient to straighten it with a wooden hammer because the surface is strengthened by induction heating and the outside is hard and soft.
    ②金相组织好。由于感应加热时加热速度极快,奥氏体中的亚结构来不及回复再结晶,使得淬火后的马氏体晶粒非常细小。另外,由于加热时间短,从而避免了齿尖的脱碳现象。
    Metallographic structure is good. Due to the rapid heating rate during induction heating, the substructures in austenite have no time to recrystallize, resulting in very fine martensite grains after quenching. In addition, due to the short heating time, the decarburization of the tooth tip is avoided.
    ③表面硬度高。由于钢锉仅是表面层的迅速加热淬火,所以淬硬层表面往往存在着高的应力分布和高碳马氏体区域,因此可以得到附加的高硬度(增硬现象)。技术要求硬度≥62HRC,而感应淬火得到的硬度值往往都在65 HRC以上。
    Surface hardness is high. Because the steel file is only a rapid heating quenching of the surface layer, there is often a high stress distribution and high carbon martensite region on the surface of the hardened layer, so the additional high hardness (hardening phenomenon) can be obtained. The hardness of the technology is more than 62HRC, and the hardness value obtained by induction quenching is always over 65 HRC.
    ④劳动生产率高。由于感应加热系快速加热,加上淬火操作配备了专用的高效半自动淬火机,所以班产量比盐浴淬火要提高2~3倍。最多的可达4倍以上。
    Labour productivity is high. Due to the rapid heating of induction heating system and the special semi-automatic quenching machine equipped with quenching operation, the output per shift is 2-3 times higher than that of salt bath quenching. Up to 4 times more.
    ⑤改善了劳动环境。采用感应加热工艺,只需将锉刀插进规定的输送笼内,即可完成送料、加热、冷却、校直工序,再通过输送带自动进入回火箱内,回火后自动进盘。整个工艺过程连续完成,如遇到问题,操作者仅需按动按钮即可,劳动强度小,工作环境明显改善。更重要的是节能环保,符合清洁生产的发展方向。
    (5) improving the working environment. Adopting induction heating technology, only need to insert the file into the stipulated conveyor cage, can complete the feeding, heating, cooling, straightening process, and then through the conveyor belt into the temper box automatically, after tempering automatically into the disk. The whole process is completed continuously. If there is a problem, the operator only needs to press the button. The labor intensity is small and the working environment is improved obviously. More importantly, energy conservation and environmental protection, in line with the development direction of cleaner production.
    经过几十年的生产、市场考验,钢锉感应淬火技术是比较先进的,工艺可靠稳定,热处理质量优于盐浴淬火,感应淬火得到更细的组织,更高的硬度
    After decades of production and market test, induction hardening technology of steel file is more advanced, reliable and stable process, heat treatment quality is better than salt bath quenching, induction hardening to get finer structure, higher hardness 


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