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    T12钢锉刀快速球化工艺怎么处理?

    2018-10-25 08:49:36 无锡盛发地坪科技有限公司 阅读
    国内钢锉基本上都是用T12钢制造。锉刀锻坯必须经过球化退火才能满足随后机械加工的要求。虽然高碳钢的退火被认为是成熟的传统工艺,但因其能耗高,周期长(一般需24h/炉),氧化脱碳严重,生产效率低,促使人们对这一工艺的研究和改进。
    Domestic steel files are basically made of T12 steel. The forged billet must be spheroidizing to meet the requirements of subsequent machining. Although annealing of high carbon steel is considered to be a mature traditional process, its high energy consumption, long cycle (usually 24h / furnace), serious oxidation and decarbonization, low production efficiency, prompt people to study and improve this process.
    1)球化退火工艺改进的理论依据。
    1) the theoretical basis for improving spheroidizing annealing process.
    ①根据有关文献的报导,在常规球化退火的组织中,粒(球)状碳化物颗粒数(单位体积内或单位面积上)与加热奥氏体化时的剩余碳化物颗粒数相同,由此认为球化退火后的粒(球)状碳化物是由剩余碳化物长大而成。这就告诉我们加热奥氏体化时获得的剩余碳化物颗粒数越多,球化后的粒(球)状碳化物也就越多,球化越容易。
    (1) According to the relevant literature, the number of granular (spherical) carbide particles in the conventional spheroidized annealed microstructure is the same as that of the residual carbide particles in the austenitized microstructure. It is considered that the granular (spherical) carbide after spheroidized annealing is formed by the growth of residual carbide. This tells us that the more residual carbide particles obtained during austenitizing, the more spheroidized carbide particles, and the easier spheroidization.
    ②有研究证明,球化退火时有了粒状碳化物的核心只是球化的一个方面,因为这些剩余碳化物在随后的奥氏体过冷分解中,既可以作为共析分解的领先相,促使分解的另一相(α)作为受领相在其表面上形核,从而形成了共析相的核心,此核心长大的结果必然是两相相间交错分布层片状珠光体(PL)。此外,还有一种可能,就是剩余碳化物粒化的现存的核心,但分解的另一相(α)却不作为受领相,即不优先在碳化物表面上形核,而是在过冷奥氏体内部深处单独形核,这种奥氏体分解产物的两个相分别独立形核(不构成共析体核心)时,所造成的母相奥氏体内碳浓度分布与共析转变时不同,它将促使碳化物和α相各自单独呈球状长大,从而得到粒(球)状珠光体( Ps)。奥氏体化时得到的碳浓度不均匀的奥氏体可明显加速Ps的形成过程。
    (2) It has been proved that the nucleus of granular carbides during spheroidizing annealing is only one aspect of spheroidization, because these residual carbides can be used as the leading phase of eutectoid decomposition in subsequent subcooled decomposition of austenite, and the other phase (a) of decomposition can be nucleated on its surface as the receiving phase, thus forming the eutectoid phase. The core of this core growth is necessarily the interphase and intergranular distribution of lamellar pearlite (PL). In addition, it is also possible that the existing core of residual carbide granulation, but the decomposition of another phase (a) does not act as the receiving phase, that is, does not take precedence in nucleating on the surface of the carbide, but in the depths of the undercooled austenite alone nucleation, the two phases of the decomposition product of the austenite nucleate independently (does not constitute eutectoid). The distribution of carbon concentration in the parent austenite is different from that in eutectoid transformation. It will promote the growth of carbides and alpha phases in spherical shape respectively, so that the granular (spherical) pearlite (Ps) can be obtained. The austenitizing of austenite can accelerate the formation of Ps obviously.
    ③加热过程的控制理论。有研究者根据钢加热奥氏体化的转变图和加热转变时奥氏体的形成及其内碳浓度变化的原理指出,通过调整加热工艺的三个参数(加热速度、加热温度和保温时间)可以控制奥氏体状态,从而满足前述理论的要求。在理论上控制仪相消失的温度,时间以透烧为准。
    3. Control theory of heating process. According to the austenitizing transformation diagram of steel and the formation of austenite and the change of carbon concentration in the austenite during heating transformation, it is pointed out that the austenite state can be controlled by adjusting the three parameters of heating process (heating speed, heating temperature and holding time), so as to meet the requirements of the above theory. In theory, the temperature of the disappearance of the instrument is controlled by time.
    2)快速球化退火工艺及效果。根据理论研究和现场测试结果,在不改变退火前后的冷热加工工艺的情况下,在现有的几台不同的炉内对不同类型和规格的锉刀毛坯进行快速球化退火试验,结果见表3-6。球化退火的加热温度应根据所测炉子的热特性确定,而保温时间除取决于炉子的热特性外,还与退火锉刀类型及装炉量有关。保温时间总的来说由原来的5~6. 5h缩短到70~ 90min,降温时间(指780℃奥氏体温度降至球化下限温度680℃所需的时间)由原来的9.5~10h减少到4.5~5h,而且无跑温现象出现。
    2) rapid spheroidizing annealing process and effect. According to the results of theoretical research and field test, the rapid spheroidizing annealing tests of different types and specifications of file blanks were carried out in several existing furnaces without changing the cold and hot working processes before and after annealing. The results are shown in Table 3-6. The heating temperature of spheroidizing annealing should be determined according to the thermal characteristics of the furnace, and the holding time depends not only on the thermal characteristics of the furnace, but also on the type of annealing file and the amount of furnace. In general, the holding time is shortened from 5-6.5 h to 70-90 min, and the cooling time is reduced from 9.5-10 h to 4.5-5 h, and there is no running temperature phenomenon. 



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