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    低碳钢锉刀热处理工艺

    2018-10-25 08:48:49 无锡盛发地坪科技有限公司 阅读

    钢锉是一种广泛应用于各产业部门的手工工具,长期使用碳素工具钢制作。这严重影响了锉刀制造业采用各种成形加工方法的可能性,从锉刀的实际使用情况来看,锉刀是一种不重磨的手工刀具,它要求有良好的切削性能、排屑性能,以及较高的使用寿命。为此,锉刀的齿峰应具有足够的硬度、强度、抗疲劳性,以及较高的耐磨性和耐蚀性,而对其心部,则要求有较好的韧性和抗冲击性能。而现用的碳素工具钢不完全具有这种外强内韧的特性。

    Steel file is a kind of hand tool widely used in various industries, and is made of carbon tool steel for a long time. This seriously affects the possibility of file manufacturing industry to adopt a variety of forming processing methods. From the actual use of the file, the file is a kind of hand tool without re-grinding, it requires good cutting performance, chip removal performance, and higher service life. For this reason, the tooth peak of the file should have enough hardness, strength, fatigue resistance, as well as high wear resistance and corrosion resistance, and for its center, it requires better toughness and impact resistance. However, the carbon tool steels used nowadays do not have such characteristics as external strength and internal toughness.

    所以,长期以来,国内外钢锉业界的广大工程技术人员不断探寻新材料、新技术、新工艺。早在1972年罗马尼亚曾研制出用低碳钢进行表面液体碳氮共渗的方法来制造锉刀。我国也曾在20世纪60年代至80年代进行过用低碳钢制作锉刀的试验。这些方法或者是因为有严重公害,或者是因为效益欠佳、性能不高,都没有得到广泛应用,以致至今国内外广大锉刀业仍首选采用T12或T13制造。而北京某厂研制出的低碳钢钢锉碳氮共渗新工艺,值得借鉴。

    Therefore, for a long time, the vast number of engineers and technicians in the steel filing industry at home and abroad have been exploring new materials, new technology and new technology. As early as 1972, Romania developed a low carbon steel surface liquid carbonitriding method to manufacture files. China also conducted tests on making carbon files from low carbon steel between 1960s and 80s. These methods have not been widely used either because of serious pollution, or because of poor efficiency and low performance. So far, the filing industry at home and abroad still preferred to use T12 or T13. A new process for carbonitriding of low carbon steel files made by a factory in Beijing is worth learning from.

    1)盐浴碳氮共渗配方及热处理工艺。中温、高效、无毒的碳氮共渗剂配方(质量分数)为:

    1) salt bath carbonitriding formula and heat treatment process. Medium temperature, high efficiency, non-toxic carbonitriding agent formulation (mass fraction) is:

    75%BaCl2+20% NaCl+3.5% Na2CO3+1.5% NaCNO(氰酸钠)

    75%BaCl2+20% NaCl+3.5% Na2CO3+1.5% NaCNO (sodium cyanate)

    在工作状态盐浴进行的主要化学反应为

    The main chemical reactions in the salt bath are in the working state.

    2NaCNO+O2→Na2CO3 +2[N] +CO

    2NaCNO+O2 to Na2CO3 +2[N] +CO

    4NaCNO→2NaCN+Na2CO3 +CO+2[N]

    4NaCNO to 2NaCN+Na2CO3 +CO+2[N]

    2NaCN+Na2CO3→2Na2O+2[N]+2[C]+CO

    2NaCN+Na2CO3 to 2Na2O+2[N]+2[C]+CO

    2NaCN+3Na2CO3→4Na2O+2[N]+5CO

    2NaCN+3Na2CO3 to 4Na2O+2[N]+5CO

    2CO→CO2+[C]

    2CO to CO2+[C]

    盐浴中的BaCl2能促进渗碳并抑制产生NaCN:

    BaCl2 in salt bath can promote carburization and inhibit the production of NaCN:

    2NaCN+BaCl2→2NaCl+Ba(CN)2

    2NaCN+BaCl2 to 2NaCl+Ba (CN) 2

    Ba(CN)→BaCN2(氰胺基化钡)+[C]

    Ba (CN) to BaCN2 (cyanamide barium) +[C]

    盐浴中的BaCl2还能与盐浴中存在的Na2CO3直接作用,生成稳定的BaCO3与BaO,以及一部分NaCNO:

    BaCl2 in salt bath can also react directly with Na2CO3 in salt bath to form stable BaCO3 and BaO, and some NaCNO:

    BaCl2+Na2CO3→BaCO3 +2NaCl

    BaCl2+Na2CO3 to BaCO3 +2NaCl

    BaCN2+Na2CO3→BaO+2NaCNO

    BaCN2+Na2CO3 to BaO+2NaCNO

    生成的BaCO3与BaO可通过捞渣去除。成分中NaCl的存在,主要是为了调节盐浴的熔点,增加盐浴的流动性,从而加强传热过程。

    The generated BaCO3 and BaO can be removed by slag removal. The presence of NaCl in the composition is mainly to regulate the melting point of the salt bath, increase the fluidity of the salt bath, and thus enhance the heat transfer process.

    共渗温度820~840℃,共渗时间视锉刀规格大小及具体要求而定,长250mm的锉刀加热20~ 30min可得到0.4~0.5mm厚的渗层;渗后直接淬水,低温回火。按上述热处理工艺制造的锉刀的切削性能和力学性能超过T12A钢制造的同规格的锉刀。从金相分析可见,渗层最高碳质量分数达0. 8%~0.9%,大量的极细颗粒的碳氮化合物弥散分布在细针马氏体及残留奥氏体之间,形成了高硬度和高疲劳强度的表面硬化层。

    The infiltration temperature is 820 ~ 840 C, the infiltration time depends on the size of the file and the specific requirements. The infiltration layer of 0.4 ~ 0.5mm thickness can be obtained by heating the 250mm file for 20 ~ 30 minutes, and quenching water directly after infiltration and tempering at low temperature. The cutting performance and mechanical properties of the files manufactured according to the above heat treatment process exceed those of the same specification manufactured by T12A steel. The metallographic analysis shows that the highest carbon content of the carburized layer is 0.8%~0.9%. A large number of ultra-fine particles of carbonitrides are dispersed between fine-needle martensite and retained austenite, forming a surface hardening layer with high hardness and high fatigue strength.

    2)低碳钢锉刀的性能。锉刀是一种不可重磨的刀具。所以就重磨性而言,它是一种一次性使用的刀具,这就要求它有足够的切削性能、排屑性能、耐磨性能,以及抗疲劳性能。

    2) the performance of low carbon steel files. A file is a non regrinding tool. So in terms of regrindability, it is a disposable tool, which requires it to have sufficient cutting performance, chip removal performance, wear resistance, and fatigue resistance.

    显然,切削性能、耐磨性能与它的齿面硬度关系极大。图3-3给出了20钢锉刀经上述工艺碳氮共渗后,预冷一直接淬火后得到的齿面硬度(用超声波硬度计检测)与处理时间关系曲线。从图可知,仅浸液15~ 30min,齿面硬度即可达到钢锉所需求的最佳硬度范围63~ 65HRC。

    Obviously, cutting performance and wear resistance have great relationship with its hardness. Fig. 3-3 shows the relationship between tooth surface hardness (measured by ultrasonic hardness meter) and treatment time of 20 steel file after carbonitriding and quenching. It can be seen from the diagram that the hardness of tooth surface can reach the optimum range of 63 ~ 65HRC required by steel file only after 15 ~ 30min of immersion.

    锉刀的切削性能与切削齿的齿形有极大关系,由于T12A钢的原始硬度较高,所以用剁刀片剁齿时齿深很难加工到很深,而用低碳钢可使齿深增加13.3%,从而改善了切削性能。

    The cutting performance of the file is closely related to the tooth profile of the cutting teeth. Because of the high original hardness of T12A steel, it is difficult to cut the teeth very deep with a razor blade. The cutting performance can be improved by increasing the tooth depth by 13.3% with low carbon steel.

    共渗时间同硬度的关系

    Relationship between CO diffusion time and hardness

    图3-3 共渗时间同硬度的关系

    Fig. 3-3 relationship between infiltration time and hardness

    表3-3给出了20钢经该工艺碳氮共渗30min所制造出来的锉刀部分性能和目前用的T12A钢锉刀的部分性能对比情况,并列出了世界名牌锉刀DOUBLE FILES和前苏联标准( FOCT)的主要性能。从这些对比数据可以发现,用低碳钢制的锉刀,质量很高,以致超过了世界名牌产品。人们从实践中认识到,锉刀的众多质量指标,综合反映在两点:一是万次锉削试验中的锉屑克数,二是客户的信息反馈,用户满意就是高质量的体现。

    Table 3-3 gives a comparison of the partial properties of the file made of 20 steel by carbonitriding for 30 minutes with those of T12A steel, and lists the main properties of the world famous file DOUBLE FILES and Former Soviet Union Standard (FOCT). From these comparative data, it can be found that the quality of the file made of low carbon steel is so high that it exceeds the world famous brand products. It is realized from practice that many quality indexes of file are reflected in two aspects: the number of filing grains in ten thousand filing experiments, and the feedback of customers'information. Customer satisfaction is the embodiment of high quality.

    表3-3 250mm粗扳锉刀锉切性能比较

    Table 3-3 comparison of file performance of 250mm rough wrench file

    250mm粗扳锉刀锉切性能比较

    Comparison of file performance of 250mm rough wrench file

    采用的试块硬度为170~187HBW,截面尺寸为10mm×25mm,压重为12. 5kg的标准锉削试验规范。从实测数据可见,低碳钢碳氮共渗锉刀,其万次锉削锉屑克数不仅比原来的T12A钢锉刀提高近100%,而且超过了名牌DOUB-LE FILES锉刀28%,也超过了前苏联标准。

    The hardness of the specimen is 170-187 HBW, the sectional dimension is 10 mm *25 mm, and the pressure is 12.5 kg. From the measured data, it can be seen that the number of cuttings per 10000 times of low carbon steel carbonitriding file is not only 100% higher than the original T12A steel file, but also 28% higher than the famous DOUB-LE FILES file and the former Soviet Union standard.

    3)结论。

    3) conclusion.

    ①采用低碳钢碳氮共渗工艺制作锉刀较原T12A钢盐浴淬火,仅材料费一项就可降低总成本25%左右,经济效益是可观的。

    (1) Compared with the salt bath quenching of T12A steel, the total cost of the file made by carbonitriding process of low carbon steel can be reduced by about 25% with only one item of material cost. The economic benefit is considerable.

    ②低碳钢锉刀,大大简化了锉刀的制造工艺,又可以使总成本下降15%。

    (2) the low carbon steel file greatly simplifies the manufacturing process of the file and reduces the total cost by 15%.

    ③新工艺将大幅度提高产品的质量和成品率,使一级品率由目前的70%提高到90%,从根本上消除了变形开裂,由此而可使总成本下降15%左右,从而使企业经济效益大大提高。

    (3) The new process will greatly improve the quality of the products and the yield of finished products, so that the rate of first-grade products will be increased from 70% to 90%, and the deformation cracking will be eliminated fundamentally. Thus the total cost will be reduced by about 15%, thus greatly improving the economic benefits of enterprises. 


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