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    钳工用锉刀的要诀和注意事项

    2018-10-21 21:53:12 无锡盛发地坪科技有限公司 阅读
    1. 锉刀结构分析锉刀的形状虽有方形、三角形和圆柱形等, 但它们的主要加工表面形状都是一样的。在长度方向, 各种锉刀都带有一定的圆弧和锥度, 一般人往往忽略了这一点, 认为只要端平锉刀, 手部水平运动, 就能锉出合乎要求的工件, 其实这是个误区。
    1. The shape of the file is square, triangle and cylindrical, but their main surface shape is the same. In the direction of length, all kinds of files have certain arc and taper, which is often overlooked by ordinary people. They think that as long as the end of the flat file, hand horizontal movement, can file out the required workpiece, in fact, this is a misunderstanding.
    通过锉刀的形状, 我们就可以看出, 在整个加工刀面上, 锉刀在柄部有一段水平面, 而到三分之二处就有一个明显的弯弧, 把锉刀工作面垂直于水平面上观察, 就会发现, 锉刀刀面并不平直。从理论上讲, 即使你双手是水平运动, 锉刀的刀面运动也是不平直的, 其运动轨迹是变化的。
    Through the shape of the file, we can see that in the whole machining tool surface, the file has a section of horizontal surface in the handle, and to two-thirds of the place there is a clear curve, the file face vertical to the horizontal surface observation, you will find that the file surface is not straight. Theoretically speaking, even if your hands are moving horizontally, the movement of the surface of the file is not straight, and its trajectory is variable.
    我们知道锉削的加工余量一般不大, 人工锉削主要靠体力作为动力, 而这个动力不是持之以恒的, 而是随着时间和人的体力下降而改变的, 这是对锉削工作不利的。
    We know that the processing allowance of the file is generally small, manual file mainly rely on physical power as a driving force, and this power is not persistent, but with the time and physical decline of the change, which is not conducive to file work.
    2. 正确的锉刀方法锉削中尽量保持水平运动状态, 前推锉刀前刀面在工件上时, 左手稍用力, 右手保持平衡; 到后段, 则右手用力, 同时左手保持平衡。然后通过观察锉削纹路来判定锉削的效果, 如采用交叉锉削, 从纹理相互结合状态上看, 可清楚地知道锉削平面的加工情况, 便于随时调整锉刀的用力方向和保持加工面的一致性; 同时做好测量, 每次测量后做好记录, 以便参考对照指导加工。
    2. The correct file method keeps the horizontal movement as far as possible in the file cutting. When pushing forward the front face of the file on the workpiece, the left hand exerts a little force and the right hand keeps the balance. At the back, the right hand exerts force while the left hand keeps the balance. Then the effect of file cutting can be judged by observing the filing lines. For example, cross-file cutting can be used to know the processing condition of the file plane clearly from the point of view of the texture combination, so as to adjust the direction of file force and maintain the consistency of the processing surface at any time. Reference control guidance processing.
    如果发现锉削的纹理加工不均, 或测量出有尺寸形状误差, 这种现象大都是加工面中凸塌角, 整个加工面出现俗称的“泥鳅背”.这是由于手法不正确造成端握和锉削用力不稳, 或者就是没能了解锉刀的形状和性能。这时要消除这个中凸的现象和避免锉削出中凸现象, 那就要用到先前提到的锉刀的圆弧面了。
    If it is found that the texture of the file is unevenly processed or the size and shape errors are measured, most of these phenomena are convex and collapsing angles in the processing surface, and the whole processing surface appears commonly known as "loach back". This is due to improper manipulation resulting in unstable end grip and file force, or is unable to understand the shape and performance of the file. To eliminate this convexity and avoid the convexity of the file, it is necessary to use the aforementioned circular surface of the file.
    利用锉刀上的圆弧面对平面进行加工, 要有意识和目的地对加工零件的凸面进行锉削消除, 同时多次测量, 与角尺、塞尺等对比, 直到锉出合格的产品。使用圆弧面注意不要把工件加工成凹状。同时, 这种方法可以引申到对圆孔、方孔和键槽等形状的加工。
    To process the plane with the arc surface of the file, the convex surface of the machined part should be filed consciously and purposefully. At the same time, the convex surface of the machined part should be measured many times and compared with the angle ruler and stopper ruler until the qualified product is filed. Use circular surface to avoid machining the workpiece into a concave shape. At the same time, this method can extend to the processing of round holes, square holes and keyways.

    3. 锉刀粗细刀纹的选择和预留加工量选择锉刀刀纹也是一个比较讲究的问题, 主要根据工件对表面粗糙度和精度的要求而定。一般原则是: 粗加工用粗纹, 半精加工用中粗和细纹, 精加工用细纹和油光锉。
    3. The choice of filing roughness and fineness and the selection of reserved amount of processing for the filing is also a more exquisite problem, mainly depending on the surface roughness and accuracy requirements of the workpiece. The general principles are: coarse grain for rough processing, medium coarse and fine grain for semi-finishing, fine grain and polished file for finishing.
    锉刀选择好后, 加工余量的预留也很重要。由于锉削的工件一般都不大, 所以理论上锉削余量不应超过0.5 m m ; 如果加工工件较大, 余量较多, 显然锉削加工起来就费时、耗力、不经济, 这时应考虑机械加工。另外, 锉削时还要注意的以下问题。
    After the file is selected, the allowance for machining allowance is also important. As the file-cutting workpiece is generally not large, so theoretically the filing allowance should not exceed 0.5 m; if the processing workpiece is large, more allowance, it is obviously time-consuming, labor-intensive, uneconomical filing processing, this time should be considered mechanical processing. Besides, we should pay attention to the following problems when filing.
    (1) 粗锉时力量不要用得过大, 不要以为粗锉就可以用最短的时间去掉最多的余量。粗锉尤要细心, 这是因为粗锉相对来说刃少刃利, 稍不注意, 就易啃伤加工面, 造成很深的加工痕迹, 导致半精加工和精加工也不易去掉粗加工的刀痕。同时由于粗齿锉刀刀刃相对较少, 用力过大易让其很快磨损变钝, 而且会使切屑过大留藏在刀刃中, 这样便会影响锉刀的锉削效率, 锉刀使用寿命也大打折扣。在锉削操作中, 向前推时用力, 往后时轻抬拉回, 避免锉刀刀刃后角磨损和划伤已加工面, 提高锉刀寿命。
    (1) Do not use too much force when filing, do not think that the rough file can use the shortest time to remove the most surplus. Rough file should be more careful, because rough file is relatively less sharp edge, slightly neglected, it is easy to gnaw the processing surface, resulting in very deep machining marks, resulting in semi-finishing and finishing is not easy to remove rough machining tool marks. At the same time, because the rough tooth file blade is relatively small, too much force is easy to let it quickly wear blunt, and will make the chip too large to stay in the blade, so it will affect the file efficiency, the service life of the file will be greatly reduced. In the filing operation, push forward and pull back slightly to avoid the wear and tear of the back corner of the file blade and scratch the machined surface, so as to improve the life of the file.
    (2) 半精加工时, 在细锉上涂上粉笔灰, 让其容屑空间减少, 这样可以使锉刀既保持锋利, 又避免容屑槽中的积屑过多而划伤工件表面。
    (2) In semi-finishing, chalk ash is applied to the fine file to reduce the chip space, so that the file can not only keep sharp, but also avoid excessive chip accumulation in the chip groove and scratch the surface of the workpiece.
    (3) 精加工时, 用锉更为讲究, 要求选择细锉和油光锉。用刀时凭手感吃刀, 根据加工余量用力, 不能盲目用力, 轻推慢回。只要严格遵循正确的操作方法, 就完全可以加工出符合表面粗糙度和精度要求的工件。
    (3) when finishing, the file is more particular, requiring fine file and glossy file. When you use a knife to handle a knife, you can't force it blindly and push back slowly according to the machining allowance. As long as the correct operation method is strictly followed, the workpiece which meets the requirements of surface roughness and precision can be machined.
    (4) 锉削时切忌用油石和砂布, 只要掌握了正确的锉削技巧, 加工出来的工件肯定能满足图样要求。如果用油石和砂布, 一来会破坏加工纹理, 二来操作上一旦不当, 便会使工件棱边及角端变形, 让工件看起来缺乏美观和质感。
    (4) Do not use oilstone and abrasive cloth when filing, as long as you master the correct filing skills, the processed workpiece can certainly meet the requirements of the drawing. If you use oilstone and abrasive cloth, it will destroy the processing texture, and once improper operation, it will make the edges and corners of the workpiece deformation, so that the workpiece looks less beautiful and texture.



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