With the progress of science and technology, chain stoves with design efficiency of about 80% have been widely used in industrial hot stoves in China. How about their operation? The author participated in the thermal test and investigation of some hot stoves in most areas. The general impression is that the operation of large hot stoves is still acceptable, the operation of small hot stoves is not ideal and small ones. The problems of high excess air coefficient, high exhaust gas temperature and high carbon content in ash and slag generally exist in the operation of hot blast stove, which make the operation efficiency of hot blast stove 10% to 15% lower than the design efficiency. The fundamental solution to this problem is to replace central heating with these small hot blast stoves. Urgent measures should be taken.
1、合理控制过剩空气系数 链条成都找人公司排烟过剩空气系数经济值在1.6~1.9之间,而实测过剩空气系数几乎都大于2,个别超过3。而过剩空气系数增加0.1约使排烟损失增加0.7%,由此造成了排烟热损失大大增加。 过剩空气系数大的原因在于小型成都收账公司都未装设必要的监测仪表,燃烧调节缺乏科学性,司炉仅凭“经验”进行。 合理控制过剩空气系数首先应配置奥氏仪和U型管压力计。压力计用于测量鼓、引风机的压力、风室压力、烟道各段阻力变化情况以及炉膛负压,配合烟气分析调整成都收账公司的燃烧。一般应使炉膛出口保持-2~-3毫米水柱的压力,排烟含氧量8%~10%。司炉应懂得送风量大,增加了空气量对燃烧有利,但降低了炉膛温度对燃烧不利,且还会导致排烟热损失q2增大,而经济的过剩空气系数可使各项损失之和为最小,热风炉效率为最高。 对运行中的热风炉来讲,若热风炉双侧进风燃烧中出现了炉排中间旺甚至穿孔的现象时,以及单侧进风的热风炉出现了一边红一边黑的“阴阳炉”现象时,都是配风不均匀造成的。侧密封漏风、出渣口漏风是热风炉密封欠佳的主要表现。侧密封漏风还会形成小区域燃烧导致链条烧坏。 对以上问题我们应采取以下措施:
1. Reasonable control of excess air coefficient The economic value of excess air coefficient of exhaust gas in chain hot blast stove ranges from 1.6 to 1.9, while the measured excess air coefficient is almost greater than 2, and some exceed 3. The excess air coefficient increases by about 0.1, which increases the smoke loss by 0.7%, resulting in a significant increase in the heat loss of smoke. The reason for the high excess air coefficient is that the small hot blast stoves are not equipped with necessary monitoring instruments, and the combustion regulation is not scientific, so the stoves are only carried out by "experience". Reasonable control of excess air coefficient should first be equipped with Ordovician and U tube manometer. Pressure gauge is used to measure the pressure of blower and induced draft fan, chamber pressure, resistance change of flue duct and furnace negative pressure, and adjust the combustion of hot blast stove with flue gas analysis. Generally, the furnace outlet should maintain the pressure of -2~-3 mm water column and the oxygen content of the exhaust gas will be 8%~10%. Furnace managers should understand that large air supply and increased air volume are beneficial to combustion, but lowering furnace temperature is not conducive to combustion, and will also lead to an increase in exhaust heat loss q2. Economic excess air coefficient can minimize the sum of all losses, and the efficiency of hot blast stove is the highest. For the hot blast stove in operation, the uneven distribution of air is caused by the phenomena of strong or even perforation in the middle of the grate during the combustion of both sides of the hot blast stove and the phenomenon of "Yin-Yang stove" with red side and black side in the one side of the hot blast stove. The leakage of the side seal and the leakage of the slag outlet are the main manifestations of the poor sealing of the hot blast stove. The air leakage in the side seal will also cause small area combustion to cause the chain to burn out. For the above problems, we should take the following measures:
(1) On the premise of guaranteeing the basic sealing between the air chambers, the opening and throttling baffles are added to several air chambers in the combustion zone. Practice has proved that 4-5 baffles should be installed in one air chamber, and the opening area depends on the actual situation. This method has obvious effect on improving the inhomogeneity of wind pressure distribution. For example, in a 10 ton/h chain grate furnace, the phenomenon of "Yinyang furnace" often occurs in combustion. In order to reduce the carbon content of ash and slag, the furnace has to increase the air supply. As a result, the phenomenon of partial burning is more serious. Some phenomena such as burning out side seals and splint tensioning screw have occurred, and the furnace has to stop for maintenance. Five orificed throttle baffles were added to the second, third and fourth air compartments, and the air compartments were divided into six compartments with equal air pressure, so that the distribution of air pressure along the width direction of the grate was basically uniform when one side of the air inlet was used. The carbon content of the slag is reduced by 3%, the heat loss of the exhaust gas is reduced by 1%, and the efficiency of the hot stove is increased by 2%. The problem of partial combustion has been solved, and no accident has stopped.
(2) Enlarging the cross-section size of the entrance of the exhaust chamber can reduce the air velocity at the entrance of the chamber, reduce the eddy current caused by the sudden expansion of the cross-section, and make the air pressure in the chamber relatively uniform. The method is restricted by the structure of the hot blast stove and can only be used when the air distribution is uneven.
(3) In fact, labyrinth side seals are easy to leak. Users with poor economic conditions should consider using "mortar cement plugging method" to remedy the leak. This method has good sealing effect, economic benefits and short transformation period. The side seal can also be considered. 所谓生物质热风炉的经济运行，就是指用最低的成本，使热风炉发挥最大的作用。热风炉的运行成本主要包括：燃料费用、水费、电费和人员的工资等等。其中燃料费用所占比重最大，如果能够有效地提高热风炉的热效率，就能更好地控制热风炉的运行成本，提高热风炉的运行水平。
The so-called economic operation of biomass hot-blast stoves means that the hot-blast stoves play the greatest role with the lowest cost. The running cost of hot blast stove mainly includes: fuel cost, water charge, electricity fee and personnel's wages. Among them, fuel cost accounts for the largest proportion. If the thermal efficiency of hot-blast stove can be effectively improved, the operation cost of hot-blast stove can be better controlled and the operation level of hot-blast stove can be improved.
Controlling the fuel consumption of hot blast stove can be considered from the following aspects:
(1) The fuel calorific value of biomass hot blast stove should be as close as possible to that of design fuel. If the calorific value is inconsistent, it will result in insufficient outlet force or failure to operate at the optimum working point. Invisibly, it will reduce the thermal efficiency of hot stove or damage equipment. So when buying fuel, we should first know the type and calorific value of fuel, and when necessary, we should sample and test fuel.
(2) The heating Department should contact the hot blast stove house in advance when the required load of the heating Department varies greatly. It is convenient to regulate the load of the hot stove in order to ensure that the hot stove runs at a more economical working point.
(3) the load adjustment of heating stove is very different in winter. This requires that the heating stove adjust the heating capacity of the hot stove according to the temperature of the environment. Adjustment mode can adopt quality regulation or quantity regulation, as long as the heating requirements can be guaranteed, the most taboo operation status remains unchanged.
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